Andrews was an early ecclesiastical settlement associated with
relics of St Andrew, it grew in importance with the founding of
the St Regulus Church, a priory in the 12th Century and finally
a grandiose cathedral, all of which eclipsed the Celtic settlement
of St Mary on the Rock. The monastic establishment renowned as
a seat of learning was the precursor of the university. With a
growing university attracting scholars and students of a high
calibre. 15th Century St Andrews was an active and prosperous
burgh well meriting the attribution of a national role as ecclesiastical
capital of Scotland in 1472. Prosperity and the population declined
in the 17th Century, owing in part to the loss of the archbishopric
(1689 Revolution), the changing trading patterns (now with the
American colonies), as well as the political changes after the
1707 Act of Union. The 18th Century was also one of general decline.
19th Century saw the beginning of the growth of golf as a sport
and by the turn of the century the town had achieved renown as
a Mecca of golf. Its popularity as a holiday and golfing resort
has gone from strength to strength.
St Andrews for Golf, a Royal and Ancient Game
St Andrew's links with swards of springy turf and sand bunkers
have, since the 15th Century, been a place for playing golf or
the early ball and stick version of this sport. So popular was
the game that by 1457 an Act of Scottish Parliament was passed
requiring that "futeball and the goife be utterly cryit down"
in favour of kirk attendance and archery practice. Mary, Queen
of Scots was an occasional player, her son James VI popularised
the game in England and both James Melville and the Marquess of
Montrose played here as students. Founded in 1754, the Society
of St Andrews Golfers had the title Royal and Ancient conferred
on it by William IV in 1834 and is now recognised as the ruling
body. To meet the increasing popularity of the sport, new courses
(New 1895, Jubilee 1897, Eden 1912) were laid out supplementing
the Old Course, which was established several centuries ago.
the beginning of the 20th Century St Andrews was firmly established
as the golfing Mecca and the town now regularly hosts the British
Open and Amateur Championships. Walker Cup Matches and a variety
of other big money tournaments which draw the stars of the professional
circuit, bringing record-breaking crowds despite television coverage.
Two of the greatest names in golfing history are immortalised
by hole names on the Old Course: Tom Morris (18th) and Bobby Jones
St Andrews - St Andrews University
Founded in 1410 (1413 Papal Bull) by Henry Wardlaw, Bishop of
St Andrews, it was the first in Scotland and third in Great Britain
after Oxford and Cambridge. Typical of medieval colleges, there
were no buildings until the Pedagogy was built in 1430, followed
by the Colleges of St Salvator's (1450). St Leonard's (1512) and
St Mary's (1537). Three of Scotland's 15th Century poets, William
Dunbar, Gavin Douglas and Sir David Lindsay, all studied here.
By the 16th Century St Leonard's was already associated with reformist
doctrines and university associations with leading figures of
the Reformation are numerous: Patrick Hamilton, Alexander Alane
(Alesius), Henry Scrimger as well as Andrew and James Melville.
The resultant struggles with the established ecclesiastical hierarchy
and the Crown are well known historical events.
the end of the 17th Century decline had set in but although the
proposal to transfer the University to Perth fell through, it
continued into the 18th Century, when St Leonard's and St Salvator's
were amalgamated to form United College in 1747. The 19th Century
was a period of reforms and reorganisation and the student population
reached its lowest ebb in the 1870s with a total of 130. By the
end of the 19th Century, and the 1897 union with Dundee, numbers
were in constant progression. Despite the loss of Queen's in 1967,
the present student population of 4,250 has greatly enlarged premises,
and is once again largely residential.
St Andrews Cathedral
The 16th Century precinct wall encloses the cathedral ruins and
the church of St Regulus (Rule). The imposing St Regulus Church
with its lofty western tower may well have been the shrine built
to shelter St Andrew's relics. Queen Margaret's son, Alexander
I, nominated Robert, Prior of Scone as Bishop of St Andrews, and
it was he who built the church between 1127 and 1144. The tower
(51 steps) has a magnificent panorama of St Andrews and its main
Robert founded the priory c 1159 and his successor Bishop Arnold
began work on the new cathedral, which was consecrated in 1318
by Bishop Lamberton in the presence of Robert the Bruce. Only
the 12th Century east end, late 13th Century west gables and the
south wall of the nave remain of this once immense building with
its 10-bay nave. Following the depredations of the Reformation.
subsequent neglect and 17th Century quarrying for stone, this
once noble building was reduced to the extant ruins. To the south
were the buildings of what must have been one of the most powerful
monastic establishments in Scotland. Foundations indicate the
museum has a good collection of early Christian sculptured stones
-fragments of 8C-9C cross slabs - from St Mary of the Rock and
a superb 8C or 1 OC sarcophagus.
St Andrews Castle
Overlooking the foreshore, the ruins once formed part of the palace
and stronghold of the Bishops and Archbishops of St Andrews. The
castle, founded c 1200. suffered greatly during the Wars of Independence.
Bishop Henry Wardlaw, founder of the university, was tutor to
James I and it is possible that his young charge spent time here
prior to his captivity in England. Bishop Kennedy taught James
II how to break the power of his nobles by comparing them to a
bundle of arrows, with the suggestion he snap each one individually.
reformers suffered imprisonment here, including George Wishart
whom Cardinal Beaton had burnt at the stake in front of his palace,
and Patrick Hamilton another martyr. Following the martyrdom of
Wishart, a group of Protestants seeking revenge gained admission
to the castle disguised as stonemasons and murdered Cardinal Beaton
They held the castle for a year and were joined at intervals by
others such as John Knox, and the siege was only lifted when the
garrison capitulated to the French fleet. The besieged were taken
to France and Knox was sent to the galleys.
late-16th Century entrance range with the central Fore Tower,
originally flanked by two round towers, was the work of Archbishop
Hamilton and it was supposedly from this facade (the exact spot
is contested) that the body of Cardinal Beaton was displayed to
the crowd. The buildings were arranged around a courtyard. In
what remains of the northwest or Sea Tower is the grim Bottle
Dungeon of late 14th Century construction; 24ft deep it is hewn
out of solid rock. The other interesting items are a mine and
counter mine excavated during the 1546-47 siege.
the pavement in front of the castle are the initials of George
Wishart marking the spot where he was burnt at the stake in 1546.
Buildings - St Salvator's College
Now the centre of United College. St Salvator's was founded in
1450 by Bishop James Kennedy. The chapel and tower, above the
entrance archway, form the North Street frontage and are a good
example of 15th Century Gothic ecclesiastical style. The two ranges
around the quadrangle are 19th Century reconstructions. St Salvator's
Chapel was, according to Dr Johnson. "the neatest place of
worship he had seen". The collegiate church was restored
in the 19C and 20C. Inside is the founder's tomb, an amazingly
intricate 15C work of art in the Gothic style. The pulpit opposite,
with the preacher's hourglass, is supposedly the one used by John
Knox. The initials PH laid in the pavement before the entrance,
mark the spot where Patrick Hamilton (1504-28). one of the early
reformers, was burned on 29 February 1528.
The chapel belonged to the college of the same name. The original
buildings were a hospital for pilgrims to St Andrew's shrine,
then a nunnery, before being acquired to form the nucleus of the
new college of St Leonard's. When St Leonard's and St Salvator's
were united in 1747. the chapel was neglected while the buildings
and grounds were eventually taken over by St Leonard's girls'
school. The 1950s restoration recreated the medieval layout with
a screen and organ loft dividing the building in two.
In the early days of the university, classes were held in the
priory buildings until Bishop Henry Wardlaw provided the Pedagogy
(1430). This was superseded 100 years later when Archbishop James
Beaton founded St Mary's College (1537). The college became a
theological College in 1579. The buildings on the west side of
the quadrangle are 16th Century. On the ground floor. College
Hall has portraits of past principals including Cardinal Beaton.
Up two flights of stairs is one of the original student chambers
with box beds. On the north side is the old University Library,
on the site of the original Pedagogy, which is now refurbished
as the Psychology Department. On the street front there are a
series of arms of University Chancellors. The first floor Senate
Room is part of a 19C extension. The two Joseph Knibb longcase
clocks flanking the fireplace were part of Gregory's equipment.
Both Archbishop Sharp and Cardinal Beaton are portrayed amongst
Upper Hall (1612-43), "elegant and luminous" according
to Johnson, is a galleried room panelled with pale Baltic pine.
This was where Gregory, the Astronomer (1638-75) and inventor
of the reflecting telescope, worked. The ground floor Parliament
Hall completed in 1643 is where the Scottish Parliament sat in
1645-46 following the Battle of Philiphaugh.
St Andrews, Around Town
The town has retained its original layout with three main streets
- South, Market and North Streets - converging on the cathedral.
The main entrance to the old town, it was built in 1589 and opens
onto South Street.
This is all that remains of a mid-15th Century foundation for
Dominican Friars. The chapel dates from the 16th Century: note
the three-sided termination. The imposing building behind is part
of Madras College.
This burgh church, rebuilt in 1410, was modified in the late 18th
Centry and restored in the 20th Century. Only the corbelled tower
with the stone steeple is 15th Century. Inside, Archbishop Sharp's
monument graphically records his death in 1679 on Magus Muir.
A 16th Century house in attractive rubble stonework with a pantile
This 16C building is now a post-graduate students' residence.
A 14th Century vaulted gatehouse which was the main entrance to
the priory. The road follows the precinct wall down to the harbour.
Rebuilt in the 17th Century with stone from the castle and cathedral.
of St Mary of the Rock
This was the site of the 12th Century Celtic settlement which
was gradually superseded by St Regulus and the new cathedral and
and Ancient Golf Club
For club members only. The imposing 1854 clubhouse overlooks the
1st and 18th holes of the Old Course and is the headquarters of
the Royal and Ancient Golf Club.
The museum is a must for golfing enthusiasts. Five hundred years
of golf history come alive by means of audio-visual displays and
interactive screen presentations: the origins of the game. the
development of the equipment - wooden shafts replaced by steel,
featheries by guttas and rubber-cores - and famous golfing events
The species of marine life include: stingrays, sharks, conger
eels, catfish and exotic types of fish and marine creatures which
adapt to habitats such as rock pools, harbours, reefs and wrecks.
There is an outdoor seal pool.
Its attractions include the rhododendrons of the Peat Garden,
the colourful Heath Garden, the alpine varieties of the Rock Garden
and the Water Garden with exotic species and moor plants and the